ALMA reveals a chemically evolved submillimeter galaxy at z=4.76

T. Nagao (1,2), R. Maiolino (3), C. De Breuck (4), P. Caselli (5), B. Hatsukade (2), and K. Saigo (6) ((1) The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8302, Japan; (2) Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan; (3) Cavendish Laboratory, Univerisy of Cambridge, 19 J. J. Thomson Ave., Cambridge CB3 0HE, United Kingdom; (4) European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Strasse 2, 85748 Garching, Germany; (5) School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom; (6) East Asian ALMA Regional Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan)

The chemical properties of high-z galaxies provide important information to constrain galaxy evolutionary scenarios. However, widely-used metallicity diagnostics based on rest-frame optical emission lines are not usable for heavily dust-enshrouded galaxies (such as Sub-Millimeter Galaxies; SMGs), especially at z>3. Here we focus on the flux ratio of the far-infrared fine-structure emission lines [NII]205um and [CII]158um to assess the metallicity of high-z SMGs. Through ALMA cycle 0 observations, we have detected the [NII]205um emission in a strongly [CII]-emitting SMG, LESS J033229.4-275619 at z=4.76. The velocity-integrated [NII]/[CII] flux ratio is 0.043 +/- 0.008. This is the first measurement of the [NII]/[CII] flux ratio in high-z galaxies, and the inferred flux ratio is similar to the ratio observed in the nearby universe (~0.02-0.07). The velocity-integrated flux ratio and photoionization models suggest that the metallicity in this SMG is consistent with solar, implying the chemical evolution has progressed very rapidly in this system at z=4.76. We also obtain a tight upper limit on the CO(12-11) transition, which translates into CO(12-11)/CO(2-1) <3.8 (3 sigma). This suggests that the molecular gas clouds in LESS J033229.4-275619 are not affected significantly by the radiation field emitted by the AGN in this system.

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